Working With WordPress wpdb Object

Working With WordPress wpdb Object

WordPress offers an object that can be used to access data form default tables and custom tables. The $wpdb object contains several methods to read, insert, delete and update records from tables. Let’s explore these methods in details.

Please don’t forgot to globalize $wpdb object within your functions before using it.

function my_plug_func(){
global $wpdb;
//your code goes here
}

Retrieving Data

To retrieve an entire row or parts of a row, you can use get_row() method. The syntax of this method is as follows:

//get an entire row or part of it
$wpdb->get_row($sql, $output_type, $row_offset);

As you can see, The method accepts the following parameters:

  • $sql : The SQL query.
  • $output_type : The result type. It accepts three predefined constants OBJECT (returns result as an object), ARRAY_A (returns result as an associative array) or ARRAY_N (returns result as numerically indexed array). The default value is OBJECT.
  • $row_offset : Whether to return row after specific offset. The default value is 0.

Explore the following example.

//get pages titles published
$published_pages = $wpdb->get_row("SELECT post_title FROM {$wpdb->posts}
  WHERE post_status='publish' AND post_type='page'", OBJECT);
var_dump($published_pages);
//outputs
// object(stdClass)[234]
//    public 'post_title' => string 'Sample Page' (length=11)

The get_var() method returns a single value from SQL statement. For instance to fetch the total number of pages you published on your blog, you can do the following.

//get number of published pages
$num_pages = $wpdb->get_var("SELECT COUNT(id) FROM {$wpdb->posts} WHERE 
  post_status='publish' AND post_type='page'");
var_dump($num_pages);
//outputs
// string '1' (length=1)

To get an entire column or part of it, you can use get_col() method. It accepts the SQL query as first parameter and column offset as second parameter. Consider the following example.

//get all pages titles
$pages = $wpdb->get_col("SELECT post_title FROM {$wpdb->posts}
   WHERE post_type='page'");
var_dump($pages);
//outputs
//array (size=2)
//  0 => string 'About' (length=5)
//  1 => string 'Sample Page' (length=11)

Inserting Data

To insert records in database, you can use insert() method, it has the following syntax.

//insert new record
$wpdb->insert($wpdb->custom_table, $values, $format_values);

As you can see, it accepts three parameters:

  • $wpdb->custom_table : A table name.
  • $values : An array of columns and data pairs and should be unescaped.
  • $format_values : An optional array of format to validate these values otherwise, it will be treated as strings.

Consider the following example

$new_values = array(
  'first_col' => 'value',
  'second_col' => 20,
);
$format = array('%s','%d');
$wpdb->insert($wpdb->custom_table, $new_values, $format);

The method returns false on error and number of rows on success.

Updating Data

The update method used to update records and it has the following syntax.

//update record
$wpdb->update($wpdb->custom_table, $values, $where, $format_values, $format_where);

As you can see, the method accepts the following parameters:

  • $wpdb->custom_table : A table name.
  • $values : An array of columns and data updated pairs and should be unescaped.
  • $where : An array of where clauses and also unescaped. if there are many clauses, they will be joined by AND.
  • $format_values : An optional array of format to validate updated data otherwise, it will be treated as strings.
  • $format_where : An optional array of format to validate where data otherwise, it will be treated as strings.

Also this method returns false on error and number of rows affected on success. Consider the following example.

$values = array(
   'first_col' => 'value',
   'second_col' => 20,
);
$format_values = array('%s','%d');
$where = array(
  'another_col' => 25,
);
$format_where = array('%d');

$wpdb->update($wpdb->custom_table, $values, $where, $format_values, $format_where);

Custom Queries

Whether you need to delete data or perform any of previous tasks, you can use query method. It returns false on error and number of rows affected of selected on success

Consider the following example.

// Delete any comment marked as spam
$wpdb->query("DELETE FROM {$wpdb->comments} WHERE comment_type = 'spam'");

To get more about wpdb object, you can visit wordpress developers site

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